To determine the chromosomal localization of the human A2b adenosine receptor, the corresponding genomic clone was isolated and used as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. Partial sequence analysis of the A2b gene (AD-ORA2B) revealed an intron that interrupted the coding region corresponding to the second intracellular loop similar to that reported for A1 and A2a adenosine receptor genes. A pseudogene for the A2b receptor was also identified; it exhibited 79% identity to the A2b adenosine receptor cDNA coding sequence and contained multiple deletions, point mutations, and frame shifts and two in-frame stops. These changes would result in the inability to encode a functional receptor. The genomic clones were utilized to localize the A2b receptor to chromosome 17p12 and the A2b pseudogene to chromosome 1q32.