Radiocesium may be deposited in the environment as a result of accidents in nuclear installations, for example, as in Chernobyl. Significant internal contamination with radiocesium poses a serious risk to human health, and, therefore, expedient removal is essential to reduce the radiation body burden. In vitro hemodialysis was tested as a potential method to remove radiocesium from a pasteurized plasma solution of bovine or human blood. Clearance values were calculated by a flow independent method. Hemodialysis appears to be a good method to remove radiocesium from blood: within 4 h more than 90% of the administered radiocesium is removed from blood or plasma. Radiocesium in dialysis fluid can be concentrated on Prussian Blue coated columns that were tested previously for hemoperfusion. Radioactive waste disposal problems can be solved by concentration of radiocesium on these columns. In vivo experiments are necessary to confirm these in vitro results.