Antitumor effect induced by granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor gene-modified tumor vaccination: comparison of adenovirus- and retrovirus-mediated genetic transduction

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1995;121(9-10):587-92. doi: 10.1007/BF01197775.


Irradiated tumor cells genetically modified to secrete granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF tumor vaccine) are potent stimulators of systemic antitumor immunity. For the preparation of a GM-CSF gene-modified tumor vaccine, it is important to achieve efficient genetic transduction of tumor cells, leading to an appropriate expression of the induced gene. In this report, with a view to developing a protocol for an effective cancer vaccination therapy, we examined the vaccination efficacies of tumor cells secreting GM-CSF by either adenovirus- or retrovirus-mediated genetic transduction. By using an adenoviral vector, Adex1CAmGMCSF, a highly efficient gene delivery and a high-level expression of the GM-CSF gene were achieved. Unexpectedly, animal vaccination studies showed that the GM-CSF tumor vaccine transduced with the Adex1CAmGMCSF recombinant adenovirus (adenoviral GM-CSF tumor vaccine) was less efficacious than that transduced with the MFGmGMCSF recombinant retrovirus (retroviral GM-CSF tumor vaccine). The GM-CSF serum concentration attained by the adenoviral GM-CSF tumor vaccine was much higher than that obtained by the retroviral GM-CSF tumor vaccine. Our findings indicate that an optimal level of GM-CSF production is important for the tumor vaccine to elicit an adequate response in the host antitumor immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics
  • Animals
  • Female
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Melanoma, Experimental / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Retroviridae / genetics
  • Transduction, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines / immunology


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Vaccines
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor