An in-depth study of triangulation

J Adv Nurs. 1995 Jul;22(1):183-7. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.22010183.x.


Multiple triangulation is an approach to research which is becoming increasingly popular among nurse researchers. It is an attempt to improve validity by combining various techniques in one study. Provided that the researcher is well informed, the approach can be successful. However, the issue becomes clouded because in their excitement some nurse researchers seem to have forgotten that the roots of research stem from one of two paradigms, or world views. This has led to the suggestion that paradigms may be combined, and has caused the validity of multiple triangulation to be called into question. In an attempt to unravel the muddle this paper describes multiple triangulation and goes on to suggest where the confusion has occurred. It concludes that multiple triangulation is a valid technique providing that researchers remember that their work will always be influenced by a single paradigm.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bias
  • Data Collection / methods*
  • Humans
  • Logic
  • Models, Nursing
  • Nursing Research / methods*
  • Philosophy, Nursing
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Research Design*
  • Science