Previous studies have indicated that physicians have inadequate knowledge of drug costs. This study was designed to determine actual pharmacy prices of 12 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and physicians' knowledge of these prices. Pharmacists (N = 67) in a large urban area were surveyed to determine the lowest retail price of commonly prescribed medications. Pain clinic and orthopedic physicians (N = 95) were surveyed to determine their knowledge of prices for 12 NSAIDs. There was wide variation between pharmacies in the cost of medications. Eighty-one percent of physicians agreed that cost is an important factor to consider. Only 25% of physicians estimated at least one-half of the medications between the highest and lowest pharmacy price. The results of this study indicate that physicians need more information about prices of medications they prescribe.