The constellation of nephrotic proteinuria, FSGS, and rapid loss of renal function in a patient infected with HIV-1 has been sufficiently widespread and well documented to justify identification as a specific renal syndrome, HIV-associated nephropathy. The position paper of the National Kidney Foundation-National Institutes of Health task force estimated in 1990 that 10,000 to 15,000 persons will develop renal disease in association with AIDS . Management of these patients is complex, and many will reach ESRD and require dialysis treatment, posing additional care problems. Greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the renal disease should lead to treatments which will forestall the development of HIVAN and possibly other forms of fibrotic renal disease. The ultimate eradication of AIDS will consign this renal syndrome to an interesting footnote in the history of nephrology. Since that time is still far in the future, nephrologists will continue to be faced with the need to diagnose and treat HIV-1-infected patients with renal involvement.