Reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminum: a review

Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 Jul-Aug;17(4):515-21. doi: 10.1016/0892-0362(95)00002-9.


It is well known that aluminum is a developmental toxicant when administered parenterally. However, until recently, there was little concern about embryo/fetal consequences of aluminum ingestion because bioavailability was considered low. The importance of the route of exposure and the chemical form of the aluminum compound on the developmental toxicity of this element are now well established. Although no evidence of maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity was observed when high doses of aluminum hydroxide were given orally to pregnant rats and mice during organogenesis, signs of maternal and developmental toxicity were found in mice when aluminum hydroxide was given concurrently with citric or lactic acids. On the other hand, studies in rabbits have shown that aluminum-induced behavioral toxicity is greater in adult and aged animals than in young adults. However, maternal dietary exposure to excess A1 during gestation and lactation which did not produce maternal toxicity would be capable of causing permanent neurobehavioral deficits in weanling mice and rats. Adverse effects of parenteral aluminum administration on the mouse male reproductive system have also been reported. The embryo/fetal toxicity of aluminum administration, the potential reproductive toxicology of aluminum exposure, and the neurodevelopmental effects of aluminum are here reviewed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nervous System / drug effects
  • Nervous System / growth & development
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy*


  • Aluminum