Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses based on restriction fragment length polymorphism maps have been used to resolve the genetic control of flowering time in a cross between two Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes H51 and Landsberg erecta, differing widely in flowering time. Five quantitative trait loci affecting flowering time were identified in this cross (RLN1-5), four of which are located in regions containing mutations or loci previously identified as conferring a late-flowering phenotype. One of these loci is coincident with the FRI locus identified as the major determinant for late flowering and vernalization responsiveness in the Arabidopsis ecotype Stockholm. RLN5, which maps to the lower half of chromosome five (between markers mi69 and m233), only affected flowering time significantly under short day conditions following a vernalization period. The late-flowering phenotype of H51 compared to Landsberg erecta was due to alleles conferring late flowering at only two of the five loci. At the three other loci, H51 possessed alleles conferring early flowering in comparison to those of Landsberg erecta. Combinations of alleles conferring early and late flowering from both parents accounted for the transgressive segregation of flowering time observed within the F2 population. Three QTL, RLN1, RLN2 and RLN3 displayed significant genotype-by-environment interactions for flowering time. A significant interaction between alleles at RLN3 and RLN4 was detected.