[3-dimensional reconstruction of multiplanar transesophageal echocardiography images: a methodologic report with case examples]

Z Kardiol. 1995 Aug;84(8):633-42.
[Article in German]


First experience with the dynamic three-dimensional reconstruction of transesophageal echocardiographic images in more than 100 patients with various cardiac diseases are reported. Ninety different two-dimensional image planes were acquired for each reconstruction using a conventional multiplanar transducer, connected to a stepper motor and controlled by a computer-based image acquisition system with special software. Acquisition time for one data set was 2.3 +/- 0.9 min, and calculation time to achieve three-dimensional images was 20-45 min. Several cardiac structures were reconstructed and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively (measurements of distances and areas, volume calculation by Simpson's rule). Image sequences showing three-dimensional depth by gray scale modification were generated. After image acquisition one can select any desired cut plane to achieve perspectives that cannot be obtained by two-dimensional technique. Advantages of three-dimensional echocardiography are the display and potential quantification of pathomorphology of the left ventricle and mitral valve, atrial septal defects, intracardiac masses (i.e., myxomas, vegetations), and direct spatial imaging of complex congenital heart diseases. In principle, three-dimensional data sets have advantages for the quantitative evaluation of irregular formed cardiac structures, since the three-dimensional data set is more complete than cross-sections used in conventional two-dimensional echocardiography. Currently, however, these advantages are limited by the necessity of human interaction to segment the structures of interest.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bioprosthesis
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal / instrumentation*
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Heart Diseases / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / physiopathology
  • Heart Valve Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Valve Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mitral Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Mitral Valve / physiopathology
  • Software
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology