Few data are available about the potential benefit of serum cholesterol reduction in the broad range of patients with coronary atherosclerosis and normal to moderately elevated serum cholesterol levels. REGRESS is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study to assess the effect of a 2-year treatment with the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibitor pravastatin on progression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis using quantitative coronary arteriography in 885 male patients with a total serum cholesterol value of 155-310 mg/dl (4-8 mmol/liter). Among symptomatic men with significant coronary atherosclerosis and normal to moderately raised levels of serum cholesterol, patients treated with pravastatin had less progression of coronary atherosclerosis and fewer new cardiovascular events than patients in the placebo group. Ultrasound examinations of carotid and femoral arteries were performed in 255 patients. Changes in intimal-medial thickness also showed a treatment effect from pravastatin; however, on a per patient basis, there was no correlation with the treatment effect in the coronary arteries.