The linotte (lio) gene was identified in a screen for mutations that disrupted 3 hr memory after olfactory associative learning, without affecting the perception of odors or electroshock. The mutagenesis yielded a transposon-tagged gene disruption, which allowed rapid cloning of genomic DNA. The lio transcription unit was identified via rescue of the lio1 learning/memory defect by induced expression of a lio+ transgene in adults. The perception of odors or electroshock remained normal when the lio+ transgene was expressed in these lio1 flies. Learning/memory remained normal when the lio+ transgene was expressed in wild-type (lio+) flies. The lio gene produces only one transcript, the level of expression of which varies throughout development. Sequence analysis indicates that lio encodes a novel protein.