Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61 contains a 25-kb hrp cluster that is sufficient to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants. Previous studies have shown that mutations in complementation groups VIII, IX, and XI in the hrp cluster abolished the ability of the bacterium to cause the HR. The sequence of a 3.7-kb SmaI-SstI fragment covering groups VIII and IX now reveals five open reading frames (ORFs) in the same transcript, designated as hrpU, hrpW, hrpO, hrpX, and hrpY, and predicted to encode proteins of 14,795, 23,211, 9,381, 28,489, and 39,957 Da, respectively. The hrpU, hrpW, hrpO, hrpX, and hrpY genes are homologous and arranged colinearly with the yscQ/spa33/spaO, yscR/spa24/spaP, yscS/spa9/spaQ, yscT/spa29/spaR, and yscU/spa40/spaS genes of Yersinia spp., Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella typhimurium, respectively. These proteins also show similarity to Fli/Flh proteins of Bacillus and enteric bacteria. The Ysc and Spa proteins are involved in the secretion of virulence factors, like the Yop and Ipa proteins. Fli/Flh proteins are involved in flagellar biogenesis. The sequence of a 2.9-kb EcoRV-EcoRI DNA fragment containing mainly group XI revealed five ORFs, designated hrpC, hrpD, hrpE, hrpF, and hrpG, predicted to encode proteins of 29,096, 15,184, 21,525, 7,959, and 13,919 Da, respectively. The first three genes belong to an operon containing hrpZ, which encodes an extracellular protein that elicits the HR. hrpF and hrpG are two potential ORFs upstream of hrpH in the hrpH operon. HrpC is homologous to Yersinia YscJ, Pseudomonas solanacearum HrpI, Xanthomonas compestris pv. vesicatoria HrpB3, and Rhizobium fredii NolT. HrpE is similar to YscL of Yersinia spp. P. s. pv. syringae 61 Hrp proteins are most similar to Ysc proteins among those homologs. TnphoA insertions in hrpC, hrpE, hrpW, hrpX, and hrpY abolished the ability of P. s.pv. syringae 61 to secrete HrpZ (harpinPss), as determined by immunoblot analysis of cell-bound and culture supernatant fractions. Thus, many of the proteins required for flagellar biogenesis and virulence protein secretion in plant and animal pathogens may have a common ancestry.