Cystine knots

Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1995 Jun;5(3):391-5. doi: 10.1016/0959-440x(95)80102-2.


Recent reports of the crystal structure of the glycoprotein hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin show that cystine knots are proving to be versatile structural motifs that enable the construction of a variety of proteins with different functional properties. Because of their shape, there appears to be an intrinsic requirement for the cystine-knot growth factors to form dimers. This extra level of organization increases the variety of structures built around this simple structural motif.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cystine*
  • Growth Substances / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Conformation


  • Growth Substances
  • Cystine