Ultrastructural study of TPA-induced cell motility: human well-differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma cells move as coherent sheets via localized modulation of cell-cell adhesion

Clin Exp Metastasis. 1995 Nov;13(6):499-508. doi: 10.1007/BF00118189.


We previously found that 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-enhanced invasion of Matrigel was associated with augmentation of cell motility but not with metalloproteinase activity in a highly metastatic variant (L-10) of human rectal adenocarcinoma cell line RCM-1. In a two-dimensional cell motility assay, TPA induced active L-10 cell locomotion with characteristic morphology; the cells moved outwards from the cell islands mainly as a localized coherent sheet of cells. The leading cells showed locomotor morphologies with fan-shaped leading lamellae while the following cells had cell contacts on all sides and appeared to lack leading lamellae. In the present ultrastructural study, the following cells frequently showed tapering cytoplasmic protrusions and leading lamella-like processes underlapping a preceding cell, indicating that the locomotion mechanism is almost the same for both the leading and following cells. For this type of locomotion as a coherent sheet we propose that localized modulation of cell-cell adhesion was induced such that wide intercellular gaps occurred at the lower portion of the cells to allow the cells to extend the tapering cytoplasmic processes and leading lamellae while close cell-cell contacts remained at the upper portion of the cells. These TPA-induced changes took place predominantly in the cells at the periphery of the cell islands, while the cells in the middle of the cell islands maintained close cell-cell contacts including complex interdigitation all around the cells, suggesting the modulation of TPA action by cell-cell interaction. Additionally, consistent with the evidence for junctional complexes between the cells moving outwards, the Lucifer-yellow dye transfer studies showed some, limited cell-cell coupling, suggesting the presence of at least some gap junctional intercellular communication in the moving cell sheets.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Actin Cytoskeleton / ultrastructure
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology*
  • Carcinogens / pharmacology*
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Communication
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement / drug effects*
  • Gap Junctions / physiology
  • Humans
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Rectal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Carcinogens
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate