Effect of acetate and propionate on fasting hepatic glucose production in humans

Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jul;49(7):484-91.


Objective: Short chain fatty acids (SCFA, e.g. acetate and propionate) produced from bacterial colonic fermentation may be involved in the improvement of fasting glucose concentration observed with high dietary fibre diets. Because fasting blood glucose is related to hepatic glucose production, we have tested the effect of propionate and acetate on hepatic glucose production.

Setting: The study was carried out in the Clinical Research Center for Human Nutrition.

Subjects: Six healthy young volunteers.

Interventions: The subjects received, in a random order: acetate (12 mmol/h), or propionate (4 mmol/h), or acetate+propionate (12 mmol/h + 4 mmol/h), or an isotonic sodium salt solution (saline) in 3 h gastric infusions. Blood glucose and plasma insulin was monitored. Hepatic glucose production was measured with an isotopic method using [6,6-2H2] glucose.

Results: No changes were observed in blood glucose, plasma insulin concentrations or hepatic glucose production with any of the infused solutions. An increase in free fatty acid (FFA) plasma concentration related to the fasting state was observed with the saline solution, but not with the SCFA infusions (P < 0.05). There was also an increase in beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration with the saline and the acetate solutions, but not with the propionate or acetate+propionate solutions.

Conclusions: SCFA, administered at a rate calculated on the basis of a continuous daily fermentation of 30 g dietary fibres, do not change hepatic glucose production or fasting blood glucose. Propionate and acetate decrease plasma FFA, and further studies are needed to explore this effect on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetates / administration & dosage
  • Acetates / pharmacology*
  • Acetic Acid
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Drug Combinations
  • Fasting / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glucose / biosynthesis*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Liver / drug effects*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Propionates / administration & dosage
  • Propionates / pharmacology*


  • Acetates
  • Blood Glucose
  • Drug Combinations
  • Insulin
  • Propionates
  • Glucose
  • propionic acid
  • Acetic Acid