Myogenin's functions do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 during mouse embryogenesis

Dev Biol. 1995 Nov;172(1):37-50. doi: 10.1006/dbio.1995.0004.


The four myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins, MyoD, myogenin, Myf-5, and MRF4, can each activate skeletal muscle differentiation when introduced into nonmuscle cells. During embryogenesis, each of these genes is expressed in a unique but overlapping pattern in skeletal muscle precursors and their descendants. Gene knockout experiments have shown that MyoD and Myf-5 play seemingly redundant roles in the generation of myoblasts. However, the role of either of these genes during differentiation in vivo has not been determined. In contrast, a myogenin-null mutation blocks differentiation and results in a dramatic decrease in muscle fiber formation, yet the role of myogenin in the generation or maintenance of myoblast populations is not known. Because myogenin possesses the same myogenic activity as MyoD and Myf-5 in vitro and the expression patterns of these three genes overlap in vivo, we sought to determine if myogenin shares certain functions with either MyoD or Myf-5 in vivo. We therefore generated mice with double homozygous null mutations in the genes encoding MyoD and myogenin or Myf-5 and myogenin. These mice showed embryonic and perinatal phenotypes characteristic of the combined defects observed in mice mutant for each gene alone. As shown by histological analysis and expression of muscle-specific genes, the numbers of undifferentiated myoblasts and residual myofibers were comparable between myogenin-mutant homozygotes and the double-mutant homozygotes. Myoblasts isolated from neonates of the combined mutant genotypes underwent myogenesis in tissue culture, indicating that no more than two of the four myogenic factors are required to support muscle differentiation. These results demonstrate that the functions of myogenin do not overlap with those of MyoD or Myf-5 and support the view that myogenin acts in a genetic pathway downstream of MyoD and Myf-5.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Gene Expression
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Muscle Proteins / physiology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / embryology*
  • MyoD Protein / biosynthesis
  • MyoD Protein / physiology*
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors / biosynthesis
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors / physiology
  • Myogenin / biosynthesis
  • Myogenin / physiology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA / chemistry
  • RNA / isolation & purification
  • Trans-Activators / physiology
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Myf5 protein, mouse
  • MyoD Protein
  • Myog protein, mouse
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors
  • Myogenin
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • myogenic factor 6
  • RNA