Massive chronic intervillositis (MCI) is an unusual placental lesion associated with poor fetal growth and adverse pregnancy outcome; it has not previously been associated with spontaneous abortion or recurrent pregnancy loss. This article reports a patient who had 10 spontaneous abortions with repetitious massive chronic intervillositis documented in four of five gestations spanning all three trimesters. Characteristic placental histology induced massive infiltration of the maternal intervillous space by chronic inflammatory cells and fibrin, without associated chronic villitis; the cellular infiltrate was composed predominantly of LCA and CD68 immunoreactive cells with scattered CD45RO positivity, consistent with a monocyte/macrophage population with occasional T lymphocytes. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was documented in two pregnancies. These findings support the concept that this unusual placental lesion may have an immunologic basis, and suggest that MCI may be a histopathologically recognizable cause of recurrent spontaneous abortion.