An effective vaccine against enteric bovine coronavirus (BCV) must be able to induce mucosal immunity. We recently described the construction of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (hAd5) carrying the BCV haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene in the early transcription region 3 of the adenovirus genome. In this study, we examined the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to the hAd5 vector carrying the BCV HE gene (AdBcHE) following intranasal or enteric immunization of cotton rats. Regardless of the route of administration, mucosal immunization with AdBcHE induced significant levels of anti-HE IgG antibodies in serum. In addition, following intranasal immunization with AdBcHE, significant levels of anti-HE IgA antibodies were found in lung washes of immunized cotton rats. Furthermore, the specific anti-HE antibodies in sera and mucosal secretions efficiently neutralized BCV infectivity in vitro. T-cell proliferation and cell-mediated cytotoxic responses against the BCV HE were elicited in the spleen of intranasally immunized animals. The results demonstrate that mucosal immunization with AdBcHE is capable of inducing both systemic and mucosal immunity to the BCV HE. These immune responses may be important in protecting animals from BCV infection.