This study analyzes opportunity costs for the treatment of end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation remains the most cost-effective treatment for uremia and is one of the most cost-effective technologies in health care. Improved survival of grafts and increased numbers of transplants have the potential to reduce costs for dialysis programs. To support organ donation activities, the public and concerned health professionals should be informed about the opportunity cost of "unnecessary" dialysis. These resources could be reallocated from dialysis to other programs. Among patients in dialysis, a more common use of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis instead of institution-based hemodialysis would greatly increase cost-utility and further reduce the program costs of renal replacement therapy.