Neuroimaging provides an unprecedented means by which to study psychiatric disorders. Structural imaging methods, i.e. computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have revealed subtle differences in the brains of schizophrenic patients that appear to be present before symptom onset. Radionuclide functional methods such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have led to hypotheses about dysfunction in specific neuronal networks in schizophrenia. New advances in MRI allow functional data to be obtained noninvasively in a single individual using conventional MRI scanners. This chapter discusses the parallels between the historical technical developments in neuroimaging and the deepening understanding of the etiology and manifestations of schizophrenia.