A smoked salmon processing plant including a smokehouse and a slaughterhouse was examined for the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. From a total of 475 samples the overall frequency of L. monocytogenes was 16%, while other Listeria spp. were found in 22% of the samples. L. monocytogenes was most often detected in samples from the smokehouse, where 29% of the environmental and 26% of the fish samples during processing contained the bacteria. 17% of the fish raw material to the smokehouse were contaminated, while 11% of the samples from vacuum-packed smoked salmon were positive for L. monocytogenes. The slaughterhouse was sporadically contaminated, but L. monocytogenes was not found in 50 samples of slaughtered fish. L. monocytogenes was found in the seawater outside the slaughterhouse. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis divided the isolated L. monocytogenes strains into 11 electrophoretic types (ETs). One ET, ET-6, which is the most common ET in Norway, seemed to have colonized the smokehouse. Isolates from the seawater, from the slaughterhouse and from fish coming into the smokehouse, before filleting, were other ETs.