The genotyping of ABO blood groups was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The 4 DNA fragments containing the nucleotide position 261, 526, 703 and 796 of cDNA from A-transferase were amplified by PCR, and the amplified DNA subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The different nucleotide at position 803 was clearly distinguished by electrophoresis of the PCR products amplified with allele-specific primers. By analyzing the electrophoresis patterns, ABO genotyping was conclusively accomplished. The frequencies of ABO genotypes found in Japanese blood donors with A and B phenotypes were as follows: in the phenotype A group, AA = 19.8% and AO = 80.2%; and in the phenotype B group, BB = 12.8% and BO = 87.2%.