Generation and in vivo persistence of polarized Th1 and Th2 memory cells

Immunity. 1994 Oct;1(7):543-52. doi: 10.1016/1074-7613(94)90044-2.


In vitro generated CD4 cell lines and effectors often produce either Th1 or Th2 cytokines, but stimulation of resting CD4 cells from animals leads to production mostly of IL-2. To determine whether polarization of CD4 effector cells results in development of polarized memory, I generated antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 effectors in vitro and transferred them to adoptive hosts. The effectors gave rise to long-lived populations of CD4 T cells with the phenotype of resting memory cells. Recovered cells responded vigorously to specific antigen, producing a pattern of cytokines closely related to that of the transferred effectors. Thus, encounter with a peptide antigen and directive cytokines at the initiation of culture can lead to generation of both effector and long-lived memory cell populations that produce restricted patterns of cytokines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antigens, CD / biosynthesis
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Lymphocyte Cooperation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism*
  • Th1 Cells / metabolism*
  • Th2 Cells / metabolism*


  • Antigens, CD
  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell