The Small GTP-binding Proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 Regulate the Activity of the JNK/SAPK Signaling Pathway

Cell. 1995 Jun 30;81(7):1137-46. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(05)80018-2.

Abstract

c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are closely related; however, they are independently regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli. Although molecules linking growth factor receptors to MAPKs have been recently identified, little is known about pathways controlling JNK activation. Here, we show that in COS-7 cells, activated Ras effectively stimulates MAPK but poorly induces JNK activity. In contrast, mutationally activated Rac1 and Cdc42 GTPases potently activate JNK without affecting MAPK, and oncogenic guanine nucleotide exchange factors for these Rho-like proteins selectively stimulate JNK activity. Furthermore, expression of inhibitory molecules for Rho-related GTPases and dominant negative mutants of Rac1 and Cdc42 block JNK activation by oncogenic exchange factors or after induction by inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Taken together, these findings strongly support a critical role for Rac1 and Cdc42 in controlling the JNK signaling pathway.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Enzyme Activation
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Kidney
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases*
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transfection
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • MAP2K1 protein, human
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • GTP Phosphohydrolases
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins