There is a close relationship between the abnormal microcirculation in diabetic subjects and diabetic neuropathy. Neurogenic factors play a prominent role in the regulation of the microcirculation. In diabetic neuropathy, damage to these mechanisms results in a profound haemodynamic disturbance with increased arteriovenous shunting, abnormal postural regulation of blood flow, and abnormal inflammatory responses to tissue injury. Abnormal neurogenic regulation of microvascular haemodynamics may contribute to the development of microangiopathy manifest as increased basement thickening and both are undoubtedly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot ulceration. In turn it is now recognized that microvascular abnormalities may contribute to the ischaemic aetiology of diabetic neuropathy.