PCR-based amplification of nucleic acids has had a major impact in almost every field of basic research and has already found extensive applications in the area of clinical diagnosis. For many of these applications, quantitative data are sought to relate the quantity of amplified product to the amount of original target nucleic acid present in the sample. Since the PCR methodology with its exponential nature can be adapted for this purpose, a lot of different strategies have emerged in the last few years for sensitive and specific PCR product detection and quantification. Basic strategies, including the use of external and internal standards, are presented with respect to statistical aspects, and the advantages as well as the limitations of individual protocols are discussed. Furthermore the suitability of conventional laboratory techniques, such as gel systems or HPLC, nonradioactive labeling procedures, and the principles of advanced solid-phase-mediated strategies for the precise determination of amplification products, are outlined with the help of selected examples.