Background: Restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a major problem limiting the long-term efficacy of the procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia correlate with restenosis after PTCA. We also studied the relationship between a history of previous myocardial infarction and the extent of coronary artery disease (single-, two- or three-vessel) with restenosis after coronary angioplasty.
Methods: A total of 360 patients underwent successful PTCA. Follow-up coronary angiograms were performed in 181 patients after a mean +/- SD period of 6 +/- 4 months.
Results: The restenosis rate was 49%. We divided the patients into two groups: 89 patients with restenosis (8 women and 81 men) and 92 patients with no restenosis (14 women and 78 men). Age, sex, a history of cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus and a history of previous myocardial infarction were not associated with restenosis. Serum levels of triglyceride were also unrelated to the restenosis rate. Restenosis was associated with hypertension, low levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, high levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and high total cholesterol levels (P < 0.001). Patients with two-vessel or multivessel disease had significantly higher restenosis rates than patients with single-vessel disease (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Patients with hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and multi-vessel disease appear to be higher risk of recurrent restenosis.