We screened a total of 92 unrelated patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) for mutations in exon 37 of the NF1 gene, by using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. Two novel mutations were found: a 4 bp deletion in a so-called quasi-symmetric element (6789del-TTAC) and a recurrent nonsense mutation, which was identified in two unrelated patients, at codon 2264 (C6792A). The independent origin of the latter mutation in two families was confirmed by haplotype analysis. The nonsense mutation and the 4 bp deletion are both predicted to lead to a truncated protein product lacking the C-terminal 20% (approximately) of its sequence. The occurrence of three independent mutations among 92 NF1 patients at codons 2263-2264 (exon 37) suggests that a specific search for mutations in this area should be undertaken in screening programs for NF1 mutations.