Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995 Jun;63(3):445-53. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.63.3.445.


A sample of 192 financially impoverished, inner-city women was assessed for clinical depression twice during pregnancy and once postpartum. At the first and second antepartum interviews, respectively, 27.6% and 24.5% of the women were depressed, controlling for pregnancy-related somatic symptoms. Postpartum depression was found among 23.4% of women. These rates are about double those found for middle-class samples. Particularly heightened risk for antepartum depression was found among single women who did not have a cohabiting partner. African American and European American women did not differ in rates of depression. Antepartum depression was a weak but significant risk factor for postpartum depression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Midwestern United States / epidemiology
  • Poverty / psychology
  • Poverty / statistics & numerical data
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy Complications / psychology
  • Puerperal Disorders / diagnosis
  • Puerperal Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Puerperal Disorders / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Class
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*