Vascular permeability factor (vascular endothelial growth factor) is strongly expressed in the normal male genital tract and is present in substantial quantities in semen

J Urol. 1995 Aug;154(2 Pt 1):576-9. doi: 10.1097/00005392-199508000-00073.


Purpose: Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a potent inducer of microvascular hyperpermeability and stimulates endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis. This study examines expression of VPF in the male genital tract.

Materials and methods: Vascular permeability factor in seminal plasma was quantified by immunoassay. Vascular permeability factor mRNA and protein expression in tissue were studied by situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

Results: All seminal plasmas studied contained high levels of VPF. Prostatic and seminal vesicle epithelium labeled strongly for VPF mRNA and protein.

Conclusions: The strong expression of VPF in prostate and seminal vesicle and the high concentration of VPF in semen suggest an important role for this cytokine in male fertility.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / analysis
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis*
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Lymphokines / analysis
  • Lymphokines / biosynthesis*
  • Lymphokines / genetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostate / chemistry
  • Prostate / metabolism*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Semen / chemistry*
  • Seminal Vesicles / chemistry
  • Seminal Vesicles / metabolism*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Lymphokines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors