In this review we have attempted to define the characteristics of TI-2 antigens that enable them to stimulate antibody production in the absence of T cell help. One of the most critical properties of this group of antigens is their ability to deliver prolonged and persistent signaling to the B cell. This by itself is not however sufficient to stimulate Ig synthesis, and they must therefore stimulate non-T cells to interact with the B cells either directly or indirectly via cytokine production. There is evidence implicating the NK cell and T cell as playing this important role in response to TI antigens. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of cytokines such as IL-3, GMCSF, and IFN-gamma, which significantly enhance antibody production by these antigens. Finally, we present evidence demonstrating that B cell activation via TI stimuli does not play merely a permissive role in allowing for cell cycle entry and enhanced responsiveness to other stimuli. Rather, the nature of the B cell activating signal is critical in determining the quantitative and qualitative profile of Ig isotype production.