T cell-independent antigens type 2

Annu Rev Immunol. 1995;13:655-92. doi: 10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.003255.


In this review we have attempted to define the characteristics of TI-2 antigens that enable them to stimulate antibody production in the absence of T cell help. One of the most critical properties of this group of antigens is their ability to deliver prolonged and persistent signaling to the B cell. This by itself is not however sufficient to stimulate Ig synthesis, and they must therefore stimulate non-T cells to interact with the B cells either directly or indirectly via cytokine production. There is evidence implicating the NK cell and T cell as playing this important role in response to TI antigens. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of cytokines such as IL-3, GMCSF, and IFN-gamma, which significantly enhance antibody production by these antigens. Finally, we present evidence demonstrating that B cell activation via TI stimuli does not play merely a permissive role in allowing for cell cycle entry and enhanced responsiveness to other stimuli. Rather, the nature of the B cell activating signal is critical in determining the quantitative and qualitative profile of Ig isotype production.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antigens, T-Independent*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Complement System Proteins / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / biosynthesis
  • Killer Cells, Natural / immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Models, Biological
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer / immunology


  • Antigens, T-Independent
  • Cytokines
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes
  • Complement System Proteins