Treatment of esophagorespiratory fistulas with silicone-coated self-expanding metal stents

Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 May;41(5):490-6. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5107(05)80009-4.


Nine self-expanding silicone-coated modified Gianturco metal stents were inserted in 8 patients (mean age, 58.2 years) for palliation of malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas caused by esophageal (n = 5) or bronchial (n = 3) carcinoma. One patient with a fistula above a 12-cm-long malignant stenosis received two overlapping stents. The implantation procedure was well tolerated by all patients under intravenous sedation and analgesia. After release, the stents expanded to their full diameter, leading to complete occlusion of the fistulas and bridging of the concomitant stenoses. Two patients with lung cancer received an additional tracheobronchial stent before esophageal stent insertion. Failure to maintain complete contact between the proximal stent margin and the esophageal wall led to insufficient sealing of the fistula of 1 patient and recurrent aspiration, manifested 6 days after stent implantation (overall success, 87.5%). The other patients could swallow semi-solid food until death. Seven patients died of advanced metastatic disease after 21 to 121 days (mean, 54 days) and 1 patient of massive hemoptysis 10 days after stent placement, which could be regarded as a complication (procedure-related mortality rate, 12.5%). These preliminary results suggest that peroral insertion of the modified silicone-coated Gianturco stent is a rapid, reasonably safe, and effective procedure for palliation of malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / complications
  • Aged
  • Bronchial Fistula / etiology
  • Bronchial Fistula / therapy*
  • Bronchial Neoplasms / complications
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications
  • Esophageal Fistula / etiology
  • Esophageal Fistula / therapy*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / complications
  • Female
  • Fistula / etiology
  • Fistula / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / complications
  • Male
  • Metals
  • Middle Aged
  • Silicones
  • Stents*
  • Tracheal Diseases / etiology
  • Tracheal Diseases / therapy*


  • Metals
  • Silicones