The effects of high-fiber (HF) and low-fiber (LF) meals on postprandial serum glucose, insulin, lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein concentrations of 10 hypercholesterolemic men were examined using a random-order, cross over design. HF and LF meals provided 15% of energy as protein, 40% as carbohydrate, and 45% as fat, 200 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and 25 g fiber/1,000 kcal for HF or 3 g fiber/1,000 kcal for LF. Responses over a 15-hour period after multiple meals (MM) and over a 10-hour period after a single meal (SM) were compared. HF meals were associated with a significant reduction in postprandial serum glucose (P < .0005 after SM) and insulin (P < .0005 after SM). Serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels decreased significantly after MM and SM, but differences between HF and LF meals were insignificant. Although serum triglyceride responses did not differ significantly (ANOVA) between HF and LF meals, values were higher at 2 and 3 hours after a HF SM than after a LF SM and at 16 hours after HF MM than after LF MM. Although serum cholesterol values did not differ significantly (ANOVA) between HF and LF meals, values were higher after a HF SM than after a LF SM. Other subtle differences in responses of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, HDL2, and HDL3 concentrations were noted. These studies indicate that large increases in dietary fiber intake are accompanied by small changes in postprandial serum lipoprotein concentrations.