New Zealand male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were trained on a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm using a 250-ms tone conditioned stimulus, a 100-ms airpuff unconditioned stimulus, and a 500-ms trace interval. Rabbits received bilateral hippocampal aspirations either 1 day or 1 month after learning. Controls consisted of time-matched sham-operated and neocortical aspirated rabbits. When retested on the trace paradigm, rabbits with hippocampal aspirations 1 day after learning were significantly and substantially impaired in the retention of trace conditioned responses. In contrast, rabbits that received hippocampal aspirations 1 month after training retained trace conditioned responses at a level comparable to that of the controls. Moreover, hippocampectomy had no effect on the retention of delay eyeblink conditioning. Thus, the hippocampus appears to be necessary for the retention of recently acquired, but not remotely acquired, trace conditioned responses.