We describe a method for the detection of two type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes susceptibility (*0201, *0302) alleles and two protective (*0301, *0602/0603) alleles of the HLA-DQB1 gene on the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The test is based on DNA amplification with PCR followed by simultaneous, allele-specific triple-label hybridization performed in microtitration wells. In the hybridization, very short allele-specific oligonucleotides labeled with europium (Eu), terbium (Tb) or samarium (Sm) are used. The labeled probes could be detected using time-resolved fluorometry with sensitivities of 1 x 10(7), 3 x 10(8) and 3 x 10(8) molecules, respectively. Cross-reactions were not found among samples containing 14 common DQB1 alleles. To test the utility of the developed assay, 100 DNA and 14 dried blood spot samples with known DQB1 alleles were analyzed. A 100% agreement with the reference method was reached. Thus, this triple-label hybridization assay proved to be suitable even for detection of a large number of samples.