Gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine has been extensively reported. This finding, however, does not apply to gingival size changes caused by other calcium antagonists such as diltiazem. We studied the gingiva of 13 subjects with ischemic cardiopathy who had been treated with diltiazem and established two control groups: (1) a healthy group of 12 patients and (2) a group of 10 patients with ischemic cardiopathy and concomitant treatment similar to that applied to the diltiazem group except that they had not been administered any type of calcium antagonists. The size of the gingiva around the six anterior teeth was measured on plaster models of the upper and lower jaws. Significantly higher scores of the size of the gingiva were found when patients treated with diltiazem were compared with the patients in the other two groups (p < 0.05) gingiva were found when patients treated with diltiazem were compared with the patients in the other two groups (p < 0.05) and also when interproximal (p < 0.05) and vestibular (p < 0.05) sites were considered. We did not observe any significant difference in the plaque index of each group (p < 0.05); only bleeding after probing was found statistically different between the diltiazem and the nondiltiazem groups.