A review of impedance cardiography

Heart Lung. 1995 May-Jun;24(3):183-93. doi: 10.1016/s0147-9563(05)80036-6.


Objective: To review the reliability and validity estimates of impedance cardiography to assess its empirical precision and clinical usefulness.

Data source: Empirical and theoretical literature mainly within the last 10 years.

Data synthesis: Descriptive statistics used to summarize the accuracy and use of impedance cardiography to estimate stroke volume.

Conclusions: Estimation of cardiac output is presently a core component of optimizing cardiac function in many patient populations. Impedance cardiography, which initially used a formula developed by Kubicek et al. and recently a formula developed by Sramek and Bernstein, remains controversial with regard to its accuracy and use in research and clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Output
  • Cardiography, Impedance* / methods
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stroke Volume