Adverse parenting and other childhood experience as risk factors for depression in women aged 18-44 years

J Affect Disord. 1995 Apr 16;34(1):13-23. doi: 10.1016/0165-0327(94)00099-u.


65 women who had experienced a recent major depressive disorder, and 81 women who had never been depressed, were recruited from a community probability sample. The two groups of women were compared with regard to a number of childhood experiences, including parenting style, which was assessed with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). When all the childhood factors were considered simultaneously in a logistic regression analysis, only low maternal care was significantly associated with recent depressive episodes. Low maternal care increased the risk of recent major depression approximately 4-fold and the estimate of the population attributable risk was 35%. These findings give further weight to the contention that adverse parenting in childhood, particularly a maternal parenting style typified by low care, is a significant risk factor for adult depression.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child of Impaired Parents / psychology*
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Change Events*
  • Mother-Child Relations
  • Object Attachment
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Personality Assessment
  • Personality Development
  • Risk Factors