Color Doppler imaging of the orbit shows promise in evaluation of several types of orbital abnormalities. The most promising use is for evaluation of vascular disorders. Screening for orbital varices and cavernous-carotid fistulas is easily accomplished. Color Doppler imaging can also be useful in diagnosis of ocular ischemia, central retinal vessel occlusion, and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. In cases of inflammatory disease, it may be helpful in searching for complications of infection and in monitoring the size of fluid collections. In cases of tumors, color Doppler imaging can be used to monitor lesion size and in surgical planning. More work needs to be done to determine the role of color Doppler imaging in evaluation of trauma and congenital abnormalities. An understanding of the basic anatomy of the orbit, examination techniques, and common disease processes in the orbit will allow the radiologist to offer this potentially valuable modality to referring clinicians.