Posttransfusion graft-versus-host disease (PTGVHD) is known to develop in immunocompetent patients exhibiting clinical symptoms such as erythroderma, fever, liver dysfunction, diarrhea and pancytopenia. It is speculated that transfused blood donors' lymphocytes might recognize the recipients' HLAs as alloantigens. The thus stimulated lymphocytes might proliferate, expand and finally attack the host's immune system or tissues. However, details regarding these expanded donor cells such as: (1) whether they represent one clone or more, (2) the composition of lymphocyte subsets, and (3) the target HLA antigens of recipients, are not clear, since T-cell lines derived from PTGVHD patients have not yet been obtained. The aim of this study is to characterize T-cells responsible for PTGVHD and to identify their target molecules. For that purpose, we attempted to establish T-cell lines derived from a PTGVHD patient. We show that the established T-cell line, proven to be derived from donor lymphocytes, showed a CD4+ phenotype and had cytotoxic activities. Furthermore, we describe that the target of the cytotoxic T-cell line (CTL) is an HLA-DRB1*0405-related molecule of the patient.