We report on a family with an abnormality of 10p. The propositus has monosomy for the distal region of 10p and severe psychomotor delay, growth failure, congenital heart defect, multicystic kidney, grade V vesicoureteric reflux, and neurosensory hearing loss. The mother and the elder brother of the propositus carry a balanced reciprocal translocation (5q;10p)(q35.3;p12.3). A retarded and epileptic maternal aunt was found to have dup(10p). Study of the family history led to the successful obstetric management of a subsequent twin pregnancy in which an affected fetus with dup(10p) was identified and selectively terminated, while the other normal twin was delivered at term without problems.