Effect of Altered Redox States on Expression and DNA-binding Activity of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jul 17;212(2):550-6. doi: 10.1006/bbrc.1995.2005.


Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS DNA-binding protein tightly regulated by cellular oxygen tension. Cellular redox states are related to hypoxia by changes in the expression of redox regulated genes and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Here, we provide evidence that alteration of cellular redox states by treating cells with H2O2 or dithiothreitol impairs hypoxia signaling mechanisms and the expression of HIF-1 alpha protein in hypoxic cells. In addition, HIF-1 DNA-binding activity in vitro is sensitive to oxidizing reagents diamide and H2O2 and the alkylating agent N-ethylmaleimide. The activity of N-ethylmaleimide-inactivated HIF-1 can be partially restored by addition of nuclear extract from nonhypoxic cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alkylating Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Hypoxia
  • Cell Line
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Diamide / pharmacology
  • Dithiothreitol / pharmacology
  • Ethylmaleimide / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Transcription Factors*


  • Alkylating Agents
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Diamide
  • DNA
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Ethylmaleimide
  • Dithiothreitol