Roles of retinoic acid receptors and of Hox genes in the patterning of the teeth and of the jaw skeleton

Int J Dev Biol. 1995 Feb;39(1):111-21.


Retinoic acid receptors and transcriptional factors encoded by Hox genes play key roles in vertebrate development and belong to an integrated functional network. To investigate the actual functions of these molecules during ontogenesis and in particular in the patterning of the cranial neural crest cells giving rise to the teeth and to the jaw bones, we have generated null mutant mice lacking functional retinoic acid receptors or Hox genes by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation* / genetics
  • Cell Differentiation* / physiology
  • Computer Simulation
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Humans
  • Jaw / cytology
  • Jaw / embryology*
  • Mesoderm / cytology
  • Mutation
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid / physiology*
  • Tooth / cytology
  • Tooth / embryology*
  • Trans-Activators / genetics*


  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Trans-Activators
  • HoxA protein