Kinetic characterization and cross-resistance patterns of HIV-1 protease mutants selected under drug pressure

Biochemistry. 1995 Jul 25;34(29):9282-7. doi: 10.1021/bi00029a002.


Eleven different recombinant, drug-resistant HIV-1 protease (HIV PR) mutants--R8Q, V32I, M46I, V82A, V82F, V82I, I84V, V32I/I84V, M46I/V82F, M46I/I84V, and V32I/K45I/F53L/A71V/I84V/L89M--were generated on the basis of results of in vitro selection experiments using the inhibitors A-77003, A-84538, and KNI-272. Kinetic parameters of mutant and wild-type (WT) enzymes were measured along with inhibition constants (Ki) toward the inhibitors A-77003, A-84538, KNI-272, L-735,524, and Ro31-8959. The catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km, for the mutants decreased relative to WT by a factor of 1.2-14.8 and was mainly due to the elevation of Km. The effects of specific mutations on Ki values were unique with respect to both inhibitor and mutant enzyme. A new property, termed vitality, defined as the ratio (Kikcat/Km)mutant/(Kikcat/Km)WT was introduced to compare the selective advantage of different mutants in the presence of a given inhibitor. High vitality values were generally observed with mutations that emerged during in vitro selection studies. The kinetic model along with the panel of mutants described here should be useful for evaluating and predicting patterns of resistance for HIV PR inhibitors and may aid in the selection of inhibitor combinations to combat drug resistance.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Binding Sites
  • Carbamates / pharmacology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • HIV Protease / metabolism*
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • HIV-1 / enzymology*
  • Indinavir
  • Isoquinolines / pharmacology
  • Kinetics
  • Methylurea Compounds / pharmacology
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Oligopeptides / pharmacology
  • Point Mutation*
  • Pyridines / pharmacology
  • Quinolines / pharmacology
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Saquinavir
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Thiazoles / pharmacology


  • A 84538
  • Carbamates
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Isoquinolines
  • Methylurea Compounds
  • Oligopeptides
  • Pyridines
  • Quinolines
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Thiazoles
  • Indinavir
  • Abbott 77003
  • HIV Protease
  • Saquinavir
  • kynostatin 272