To estimate the prevalence of smoking among Australian adults in 1992, 6046 adults aged 16 years and over (3063 men and 2983 women) were interviewed. A large market-research firm interviewed the sample, face-to-face in their homes during weekends. Overall, 28.2 per cent of men and 23.8 per cent of women were current smokers; 32.3 per cent of men and 21.9 per cent of women were past smokers. On average, male smokers consumed 22.1 factor-made cigarettes a day and female smokers consumed 19.1 cigarettes a day. The daily tar intake was 179 mg for male smokers and 131 mg for women. The most popular packet size was 25 (40 per cent of smokers) followed by the packet of 50 (17 per cent). Occupational and education status were inversely related to smoking prevalence. Men and women with less education and men in low-status occupations were more likely to use cigarettes from the large packet sizes. Comparison with earlier data suggests that smoking prevalence is still declining, with a significant recent drop in female but not male smoking prevalence. While in 1992, the prevalence of smoking among women was less than that for men, projected estimates suggest that by the year 2001 more women than men will smoke.