A survey for the prevalence, geographical distribution and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis was conducted on the Island of Bioko (formerly Fernando Póo), Equatorial Guinea, between 1987-89. The whole population (1799 inhabitants) of thirteen villages distributed around the island was surveyed. Identification data, physical examination and Snellen "E" test for visual acuity were performed. Skin snips were taken from both iliac crests and right scapula and calf. Differential diagnosis between Onchocerca volvulus and Mansonella streptocerca was carried out in both fresh and Giemsa stained preparations. The overall prevalence (+ skin snips) and mean microfilarial density were 75.2% (range 51.9% to 87.1%) and 32.2 mf/snip respectively. Skin snips showed a higher microfilarial density from iliac crests. The following clinical manifestations were found: 560 (31.2%) with nodules; 518 (28.8%) with dermatitis, pigmentation changes and cutaneous atrophy; 753 (41.9%) with lymphoadenopathy and lymphoedema. Blindness due to different causes was registered in 13 cases (0.8%). The results showed that onchocerciasis is hyperendemic and widespread over the island. It is estimated that almost the whole population (62,000) is at risk of infection.