Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3637 women without gestational diabetes. The Toronto Tri-Hospital Gestational Diabetes Project

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul;173(1):146-56. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(95)90183-3.


Objective: Our purpose was to assess maternal-fetal outcomes in patients with increasing carbohydrate intolerance not meeting the current criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

Study design: We conducted a prospective analytic cohort study in which nondiabetic women aged > or = 24 years, receiving prenatal care in three Toronto teaching hospitals, were eligible for enrollment. A glucose challenge test and an oral glucose tolerance test were administered at 26 and 28 weeks' gestation, respectively; risk factors for unfavorable maternal-fetal outcomes were recorded. Caregivers and patients were blinded to glucose values except when test results met the current criteria for gestational diabetes.

Results: Of 4274 patients screened, 3836 (90%) continued to the diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test. The study cohort was formed by the 3637 (95%) patients without gestational diabetes, carrying singleton fetuses. Increasing carbohydrate intolerance in women without overt gestational diabetes was associated with a significantly increased incidence of cesarean sections, preeclampsia, macrosomia, and need for phototherapy, as well as an increased length of maternal and neonatal hospital stay. Multivariate analysis showed that increasing carbohydrate intolerance is an independent predictor for various unfavorable outcomes.

Conclusion: Increasing maternal carbohydrate intolerance in pregnant women without gestational diabetes is associated with a graded increase in adverse maternal-fetal outcomes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cesarean Section
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Fetal Macrosomia / etiology
  • Glucose Intolerance / physiopathology*
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pre-Eclampsia / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology*
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors


  • Blood Glucose