In this study, 12 male baboons were delivered by hysterotomy at 75% of gestation. The development of a nonlethal baboon model permitted a study of lung growth and development in long-term survivors. Control animals were ventilated with clinically appropriate oxygen for the 21 d study period. BPD animals were ventilated with PPV and an FIO2 of 1.0 for 7 d, followed by an FIO2 of 0.8 for 14 d. They survived for 33 wk, at which time a right lower lobe lobectomy was performed. Controls showed normal well-alveolated lungs, whereas BPD lungs showed enlarged airspaces focally, nonclassifiable as alveoli, alveolar ducts, or respiratory bronchioles. Volume densities of alveoli were decreased significantly (p = 0.0009), and enlarged airspaces were significantly increased (p = 0.0003) in the BPD group compared with controls. Alveolar counts verified a significant decrease in alveoli (p = 0.004), and the internal surface area was significantly decreased (p = 0.05) in BPD treated animals compared with controls. These data document that a mild to moderate BPD lesion results in a significant and permanent loss of alveoli and a significant increase in enlarged, unclassifiable airspaces, which together result in a decreased total internal surface area in baboons that survive with their disease.