Objectives: To assess differences in plasma prolactin and prostaglandin concentrations in resuscitated and nonresuscitated patients during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to compare changes of prostaglandin and prolactin concentrations with hemodynamic variables in the immediate postresuscitation phase.
Design: Prospective, descriptive study.
Setting: Emergency medical service at a university hospital.
Patients: Twenty-nine patients ranging in age from 39 to 87 yrs with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Interventions: Venous blood samples were taken during CPR and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 mins after restoration of spontaneous circulation in order to measure plasma concentrations of prolactin, prostaglandin F2 alpha, 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 by immunoassay. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at 5, 15, 30, and 60 mins after restoration of spontaneous circulation.
Measurements and main results: In 15 patients, restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved; in the remaining 14 patients, successful resuscitation was not possible. During CPR, the mean plasma prolactin, prostaglandin F2 alpha, 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 concentrations were 95.9 +/- 13.6 micrograms/L, 357 +/- 61 ng/L, 228 +/- 28 ng/L, 277 +/- 66 ng/L, and 375 +/- 78 ng/L, respectively, in resuscitated patients, and 23.9 +/- 5.6 micrograms/L (p = .0001), 192 +/- 22 ng/L (p = .005), 202 +/- 31 ng/L (p = .528), 221 +/- 40 ng/L (p = .713), and 344 +/- 77 ng/L (p = .780), respectively, in nonresuscitated patients. At 60 mins after restoration of spontaneous circulation, the mean plasma prolactin, prostaglandin F2 alpha, 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 alpha, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 concentrations were 50.1 +/- 9.5 micrograms/L, 306 +/- 42 ng/L, 503 +/- 87 ng/L, 278 +/- 55 ng/L, and 355 +/- 30 ng/L, respectively. Mean values of systolic arterial blood pressure were 114 +/- 12 mm Hg at 30 mins and 123 +/- 18 mm Hg at 60 mins. No significant correlations were found between hemodynamic values and plasma concentrations of prolactin or prostaglandins.
Conclusions: Prolactin and prostaglandin concentrations were increased during cardiac arrest and CPR. Successful initial resuscitation was associated with increased prolactin and prostaglandin F2 alpha concentrations during CPR. Decreased concentrations in non-resuscitated patients may have been a result of exhaustion of the neuroendocrine and eicosanoid systems, or may be due to differences in bioavailability at the site of blood sampling based upon differences in hemodynamics.