Influence of viscosity on WIN 39996 as a contrast agent for gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging

Invest Radiol. 1995 Apr;30(4):226-31. doi: 10.1097/00004424-199504000-00005.


Rationale and objectives: The authors discuss the influence of viscosity on the imaging properties of WIN 39996 suspension. WIN 39996 suspension is a magnetically susceptible iron ferrite that provides negative (darkening) contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

Methods: The viscosity of WIN 39996 suspension was altered by various stress conditions (1 week to 4.5 months storage at temperatures of 5 degrees to 70 degrees C) or by various amounts of xanthan gum. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in vitro on phantoms and in vivo on the gastrointestinal tract of anesthetized dogs.

Results: The results indicated that in vitro and in vivo imaging efficacies of WIN 39996 suspension depended on the viscosity, irrespective of the means by which the viscosity was altered. Specifically, the imaging quality was suitable at viscosities > or = 36.6 cp for in vitro imaging, and > 25 cp for in vivo imaging. The lower in vivo viscosity limit for magnetic resonance imaging compared with the in vitro limit may be due to gastrointestinal peristaltic activities continuously mixing the WIN 39996 suspension to prevent gravitational settling, and the enhancement of signal blackening by intraluminal WIN 39996 that was above and below the plane of image.

Conclusions: It is speculated that the imaging quality of WIN 39996 suspension depends on the degree of dispersion of the magnetically susceptible iron ferrite in the WIN 39996 suspension, and that a minimum viscosity is needed to ensure such dispersion.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Contrast Media*
  • Dextrans
  • Digestive System / anatomy & histology*
  • Dogs
  • Drug Carriers
  • Drug Storage
  • Female
  • Ferrosoferric Oxide
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Iron* / chemistry
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Male
  • Models, Structural
  • Oxides* / chemistry
  • Polysaccharides, Bacterial
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Viscosity


  • Contrast Media
  • Dextrans
  • Drug Carriers
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Oxides
  • Polysaccharides, Bacterial
  • Iron
  • ferumoxides
  • xanthan gum
  • Ferrosoferric Oxide